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International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) (Professional Institute)

Spotlight on Commission B2: at the forefront of refrigerating equipment

18/05/2015 16:16

“All the activities described … are the result of collaboration by all commission members and the IIR staff …” Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Kauffeld

Coordinated by the IIR Science and Technology Council, Commission B2 focuses on promoting knowledge of refrigerating equipment technologies and their applications worldwide.

A key Commission for most IIR activities, B2 regularly coordinates and pools skills with other IIR commissions to promote and share research findings.

A truly global endeavour, Commission B2 is comprised of 70 experts from 25 IIR member countries worldwide.

An opportunity to interact :

Phase Change Materials (PCM) and Slurries for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference

Hosted by Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, the next PCM and Slurry Conference is set to take place on 18 to 20 May 2016 in Karlsruhe, Germany.

Building on the success of the previous events in the series held in Karlsruhe, Germany (2009), Sofia, Bulgaria (2010) and Kobe, Japan (2012), the 11th IIR Conference on PCM and Slurries for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, with the collaboration of Commissions B1, B2 and D1 is designed to provide an open international forum where academics and stakeholders from across Europe and worldwide will showcase and exchange the latest research findings, developments and trends in the field.

PCMs and slurries enhance not only the performance of air-conditioning and energy saving systems but also mechanical and chemical processes in industrial applications, and have become key technologies that attract many researchers.

The event will give scientists and practitioners an opportunity to meet their peers and share ideas that will shape PCM research and engineering for years to come.

The thematic scope of this conference encompasses key topics such as:

  • Thermophysical and rheological properties of phase-change materials and slurries
  • Transport phenomena and time-dependent behaviour of PCM and slurries heat, mass and momentum transfer
  • Novel and optimised PCM and slurries for refrigeration and air conditioning applications
  • Innovative and improved equipment and logistics for generation, handling, distribution and employment of PCM and slurries
  • Renewable heating and cooling by using PCM and slurries
  • Thermal energy storage and energy savings via PCM and slurries
  • Industrial and building applications of PCM and slurries
  • Sustainability impact of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies involving PCM and slurries.

As always, the conference aims to highlight novel PCM and slurries technologies and applications.

Ever-active Commission B2

Since the last IIR International Congress of Refrigeration (ICR) in August 2011 Commission B2 has participated in 9 IIR conferences and 12 IIR co-sponsored conferences.

The successful 11th IIR-Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants which took place in Hangzhou, China, in 2014 attracted 135 papers (available in FRIDOC), attesting to the sturdiness of research in natural refrigerants, especially CO2 and hydrocarbons, which were presented during 24 sessions.

The conference covered hot topics such as CO2 systems and heat pumps, heat transfer and heat exchangers, hydrocarbons such as R290, commercial and supermarket refrigeration, air and water, refrigerant charge reduction, ejectors, emissions reduction and energy savings and safety issues.

During a joint meeting with Commissions B1-B2-E1-E2 held at the event, commission members were able to review ongoing projects

Commission B2 will naturally be present at the 24th IIR International Congress of Refrigeration (ICR) on August 16 to 22, 2015 in Yokohama, Japan.

More on ICR2015

The Commission was also involved in the 6th Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies Conference which took place in Ohrid, Macedonia in April 2015.

Technical texts

Determined to lead advances in refrigerating equipment, Commission B2 is currently involved in the preparation of two IIR technical guides on CO2 (English version) and on ammonia (French version).

Commission B2 members also participated in several special issues of the International Journal of Refrigeration, including recent ones on solar cooling and magnetic refrigeration.

With the collaboration and expertise of Commission B2 on two IIR Informatory Notes, one on the EU F-Gas Regulation and other regulations restricting HFC use.

These publications are valuable tools that assist various refrigeration industry stakeholders in strategic actions to take in anticipation of and following regulatory changes concerning refrigerants.

Commission B2: Working Groups

An important commission in many other commission activities, Commission B2 is also actively involved in 6 IIR Working Groups:

  • Magnetic Cooling
  • Mitigation of Direct Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in Refrigeration
  • Phase-Change Materials and Slurries for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
  • Refrigerant-Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems
  • Refrigerant-System Safety
  • LCCP Evaluation.

In addition to organizing numerous conferences and workshops, these Working Groups remain very active and have participated in the publication of three Informatory Notes:

  • Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature
  • Containment of Refrigerants within Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning and Heat-Pump Systems
  • Refrigerant-Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems;

View all IIR Informatory Notes

About IIR Working Groups

IIR Working Groups operate on a temporary basis to bring together specialists in order to work on projects arising from current issues.

Their aim is to promote development, provide knowledge and give recommendations in these spheres.

In order to achieve these objectives, they hold conferences and workshops, write publications and provide recommendations.

Members of working groups are IIR members from industry, academia and research-centre settings or are refrigeration practitioners.

Information on all IIR Working Groups

Your Expertise Directory

The IIR’s Expertise Directory enables IIR members to communicate with members of IIR commissions, including 70 Commission B2 members, giving the opportunity to connect with experts worldwide from every field of refrigeration.

As an IIR member, this directory enables you to find experts according to:

  • domain: over 140 refrigeration fields within 11 overarching themes
  • commission: 10 IIR commissions
  • country: IIR experts located in more than 32 countries.

With access to over 410 experts this directory provides you with a comprehensive list of select professionals active in a wide range of refrigeration domains.

Find your Commission B2 experts

“All the activities described above are the result of collaboration by all commission members and the IIR staff – Thank you very much to all of you and please keep on supporting us. Your contribution is highly appreciated!” Michael Kauffeld, President of IIR Commission B2

News from Commission B2

Want to become junior commission member?

The delegate of any paid-up IIR country member can put your name forward to become a junior commission member in addition to their country commission member quota, provided:

  • you are an IIR junior member
  • you are 35 years old or under.

For more details please contact us at iif-iir@iifiir.org

Small steps towards a giant leap! Parties to the Montreal Protocol continue discussions on HFCs

29/04/2015 08:59

Last week saw another step towards a global agreement on the phase down of ozone depleting substances at the United Nations Conference Centre in Bangkok. The event started with a buzz around the new amendment proposals to the Montreal Protocol.

The week began with the Workshop from 20-21 April 2015 on Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) Management and possible replacement solutions in their various uses, followed by the Thirty-fifth meeting of the Open-ended Working Group (OEWG 35) of the parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, from 22-24 April 2015, which focused on HFC management. This event gathered over 350 delegates representing governments, UN agencies, groups and committees of experts on the Montreal Protocol, non-governmental organizations and the industrial sector…

Didier Coulomb, IIR Director, attended both these events as an Intergovernmental Organization representative.

The back-to-back Workshop (see below) and OEWG 35 were mandated to continue discussions on all issues related to HFC management, including an emphasis on high-ambient temperature and safety requirements, as well as energy efficiency.

The workshop focused on technical aspects of HFC management. Its conclusions were presented to OEWG 35 for further consideration and discussion by the Parties.

OEWG 35 opened on 22 April for focused discussions on HFCs. Delegates received an overview of the abundance, trends and projections of HFCs in the atmosphere and their implications; and an overview of HFC production, consumption patterns and trends.

The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) received two amendments sent by North America (USA, Canada, Mexico) and by India. The North American proposal, similar to previous ones, showed a willingness for compromise while the Indian one proposed a 2030 start for HFC phase down in Article 5 countries (developing countries).

Other highlights included a draft proposal submitted by African states on processes to regulate HFC production and consumption, and EU willingness to submit another amendment proposal by the end of April 2015.

OEWG 35 ended the day with a debate regarding potential synergies with the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), followed by an initial discussion on possible policy objectives for any HFC management policy and legal framework under the Montreal Protocol.

On Thursday, 23 April, OEWG 35 spent most of the day debating previously mentioned key issues for discussions towards a possible HFC management policy and legal framework under the Montreal Protocol, including: phase-down, taking into account hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) phase-out; means to address sector- and country-specific challenges; strengthening existing means of implementation; and capacity-building, technology transfer, funding requirements and financial mechanism.

Senegal and Zimbabwe, on behalf of the Africa Group, submitted a conference room paper (CRP) which called for the creation of a contact group to consider proposals to amend the Montreal Protocol and suggested specific issues that should be considered by such a group.

Several countries (Arabic countries, Pakistan, Indonesia, some Latin American countries) showed reluctance to detailed discussion of the amendments presented since they felt that further reflection was needed. No agreement was made to create a formal contact group.

On the final day, informal discussions led to an agreement to continue work intersessionally before the next meeting in July 2015 in Paris, in an informal manner to study the feasibility and ways of managing HFCs, including challenges set out in an annex, with a view to the establishment of a contact group.

Although no concrete result was obtained, and more in depth talks are necessary, for the first time all the countries agreed to converse. It is very likely that if the parallel negotiations on climate change, to conclude in December in Paris, are successful, a decision to phase down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol in 2016 will be conceivable.

More about the workshop

Each workshop session, six in all, was opened by a brief presentation; during the first day the three sessions covered were:

  • “Challenges and opportunities in addressing high global warming potential (GWP) HFCs in the refrigeration sector”
  • “Challenges and opportunities in addressing high-GWP HFCs in the stationary air-conditioning and heat pump sector”
  • “Challenges and opportunities in addressing high-GWP HFCs in mobile air-conditioning”

Sessions were followed by feedback and discussion by a panel of technology stakeholders, with questions from the audience, including inputs from an online board for posting questions.

Cited during the workshop were the different barriers to low GWP refrigerants stemming from standards and costs as well as the need for training, safety awareness, and energy efficiency.

Equally important to participants were domestic legislation, industry initiatives, and accessibility to low-GWP alternatives to HFCs in Article 5 countries.

The second day of the workshop also presented three sessions covering the following topics:

  • "Challenges and opportunities in addressing high-GWP HFCs in the foam sector"
  • Part 1, "Costs of conversion, intellectual property rights, accessibility to low-GWP alternatives and timeline of availability for new technologies"
  • Part 2, "Energy efficiency, safety, industry’s response to low-GWP policies"
  • "Key conclusions relevant to policymaking on technical management of HFCs"

Among the points highlighted during this second day were the capabilities of industry to provide much needed low-GWP solutions and technologies; regulatory certainty is required in order to accelerate investment and the move to low GWP.

Select the links below for more information on the subject

0313 - Refrigerants, secondary refrigerants: regulations and standards

1206 - Regulations and standardization (Montreal and Kyoto Protocols...)

0304 - HFCs

Ammonia and CO2 refrigeration technologies at the forefront

22/04/2015 09:48

Ohrid 2015:  Building on the success of previous conferences held biennially since 2005, the 6th in the series attracted a wide scope of key industry stakeholders, ranging from manufacturers, end users to research institutions.

From 40 different countries, participants seized the opportunity to meet and exchange with experts from well-known international companies such as Johnson Controls (Sabroe), GEA Refrigeration, Mayekawa (Mycom), Bitzer, Dorin, Baltimore Aircoil, Evapco, Guentner, Lu-Ve Group, Garden City Ammonia Group, Danfoss, Int. Copper Alliance, Friterm, RV Cooling Tech, EPTA and Unilever, to name but a few.

In light of the intense debate on the F-Gas regulation and its implementation worldwide, as well as proposed amendments to the Montreal Protocol for the phase-down of HFCs, the conference provided the ideal forum for the exchange of knowledge on ammonia and CO2 technologies, and their combination, as the most viable option in future.

In a region where ammonia was, and still is, a traditional refrigerant, this event provided the perfect opportunity to introduce CO2 as a refrigerant and focused on:

  • greener alternatives
  • advancing future green technologies
  • economic benefits of these technologies.

Similarly, as the event was held in a country where refrigeration and related technologies are becoming increasingly important, it attracted many from developing countries where similar matters are of equal concern, presenting strategic opportunities for many.

The focus

Held on 16-18 April 2015 in Ohrid, Macedonia, the 6th Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies Conference triumphed once again. It aimed to clarify future uncertainties regarding both the Montreal and the Kyoto Protocols and environmental regulations applicable to natural refrigerants.

This year the conference provided an enhanced programme including CO2 refrigeration technologies which focused on the global trend towards using natural refrigerant. More specifically ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons used in various refrigeration applications worldwide.

Consequently, conference participation increased, from approximately 100 individuals in the past to 140 participants this year.

Of all refrigerants applied today, ammonia and CO2 are the oldest; having been used since the 19th century. With the development and use of more ammonia and CO2 refrigerants, the event remains in line with growing trends towards employing environmentally friendly refrigeration technologies.

The programme

With the 53 high quality research papers submitted from 23 countries, the scientific and technical programme covered issues at the heart of new technologies and applications of ammonia and CO2 as refrigerants.

Topics included:

  • Design of modern ammonia (NH3) systems and technological innovation
  • Design of carbon dioxide (CO2) refrigeration and heat pump systems
  • New innovative components
  • Energy efficiency of ammonia and CO2 refrigerating systems
  • Applications of ammonia and CO2 refrigeration
  • Absorption machines
  • Ammonia and CO2 systems in developing countries
  • Technical and safety issues; Guidelines and training materials
  • Public awareness of the image and benefits of natural refrigerants.

Keynote speakers

As in previous years, the 6th Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies Conference did not fail to impress with a b line-up of international keynote speakers and lectures delivered by:

  • Andy Pearson, UK, Star Refrigeration Ltd on “Why is ammonia such a good refrigerant?”
  • PredragHrnjak, USA, University of Illinois on “In-tube evaporation of CO2: visualization and effect of oil”
  • Armin Hafner, Norway, SINTEF Energi AS on “2020 Perspectives for CO2 refrigeration and heat pump systems”
  • Eric Smith, USA, Int. Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration on “Navigating the regulatory environment and opportunities for new technologies in the U.S.”
  • Maurice Young, UK, Maurice Young Consulting Ltd on “The compliance of ammonia refrigeration plants with the dangerous substances and explosive atmospheres regulations 2002 (DSEAR) as required by the EU ATEX directives”

During the closing ceremony Prof. Risto Ciconkov (see photo), president of the conference Organizing Committee, stated “Instead of being occupied with a phase-down of HFC gases, drop-in refrigerants, retrofit of systems, environmental taxes, restrictions, calculations of F-gas quotas, let’s start with a new approach: PHASE-IN of natural refrigerants.”

More on the conference: http://www.mf.edu.mk/web_ohrid2015/ohrid-2015.html

The IIR at the heart of the action

Co-organised with the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Skopje, Macedonia, the IIR confirmed its position as the leading international organisation in the field of refrigeration, whilst equally reinforcing its activities in South East Europe.

Commissions B1, B2 and D1 of the IIR were actively involved in the organisation of this event and its interactive programme.

Cold off the press: CO2 as a Refrigerant

22/01/2015 08:51

The new  IIR technical guide on the application of “CO2 as a Refrigerant" by Andy Pearson is now available from our online bookstore.

This first edition of the IIR guide on “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in various fields such as supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores, as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems and data centers.

Designed, not only, for development engineers seeking a new perspective in the field but also non-technical experts, this guide provides comprehensive background information on CO2 related topics.

“I am grateful to the many colleagues and friends in the industry who have provided the knowledge contained in the guide and to the staff and volunteer contributors of the International Institute of Refrigeration who have pulled it together.”

Dr A. B. Pearson, Glasgow, 2014

Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, recognised expert in the field of CO2 application.

Main topics

  • Thermophysical properties of CO2
  • Exposure to CO2, safety precautions
  • CO2 Plant Design
  • CO2 applications
  • Future prospects
  • Standards and regulations
  • Bibliography

Prices

  • Paper version: 40 euros 
  • Electronic pdf version (downloadable): 30 euros

Purchase "CO2 as a Refrigerant" from our online  Bookshop*.

IIR members receive a 25% discount on all purchases from our online Bookshop. Find out more about IIR Membership.

Activities of the IIR’s Commission B2 on Refrigerating Equipment

21/11/2014 09:40

The IIR’s Commission B2, which includes 70 experts from 25 IIR member countries on all continents, is extremely active and participates in many IIR activities aimed at promoting knowledge of refrigeration technologies and their applications worldwide. It is a key commission for most IIR activities synergizing with other IIR commissions.

. Since the last IIR International Congress of Refrigeration in August 2011, Commission B2 has participated in 9 IIR conferences and 12 IIR-co-sponsored conferences. 
The latest was the very successful 11th IIR-Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants which took place in Hangzhou, China, from August 31 to September 2, 2014. 135 papers were presented during 24 sessions. The main topics covered by these papers were CO2 systems and heat pumps (31 papers), heat transfer and heat exchangers (17), hydrocarbons such as R290 (14), commercial and supermarket refrigeration (11), air and water (10), refrigerant charge reduction (8), ejectors (6), emissions reduction and energy savings (6) and safety issues (6). These papers attest to the sturdiness of research in natural refrigerants, especially CO2 and hydrocarbons (see the “Technology” section of the IIR Newsletter). 
A joint Commissions B1-B2-E1-E2 business meeting was organized during this conference allowing commission members to review ongoing projects.

. Upcoming IIR conferences include the 6th Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies Conference from April 16 to 18, 2015, in Ohrid, Macedonia, and naturally the 24th IIR International Congress of Refrigeration, on August 16 to 22, 2015 in Yokohama, Japan.  
   
. Commission B2 is also involved in 6 IIR Working Parties: Magnetic Cooling (Peter Egolf), Mitigation of Direct Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in Refrigeration (Per Lundqvist), Phase-Change Materials and Slurries for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning (Laurence Fournaison), Refrigerant-Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems (José Miguel Corberan), Refrigerant-System Safety (Lennart Rolfsman), LCCP Evaluation (Yunho Hwang). Most are very active as illustrated by the publication of three Informatory Notes: Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature, Containment of Refrigerants within Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning and Heat-Pump Systems and Refrigerant-Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems; and the organization of numerous conferences and workshops. 

Two IIR guides are under preparation: on CO2 (English version) and on ammonia (French version).

Commission B2 members also participated in several special issues of the International Journal of Refrigeration, including recent ones on solar cooling and magnetic refrigeration.

Two Informatory Notes, one on the EU F-Gas Regulation and other regulations restricting HFC use and one on the current long-term alternative refrigerants and their possible applications, are to be published soon. These will be valuable tools to assist various refrigeration sector stakeholders in actions to take following regulatory changes concerning refrigerants. 

All the activities described above are the result of collaboration by all commission members and the IIR staff – Thank you very much to all of you and please keep on supporting us. Your contribution is highly appreciated!

Michael Kauffeld
President of the IIR’s Commission B2

Continued IIR commitment to reduce refrigerant emissions

20/11/2014 10:19

During the preparatory segment from 17-19 November, in line with IIR activities, we attended a series of debates on prospects for emission reduction of HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) and replacements of HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons). 

Additionally, during the high-level segment from 20-21 November, Didier Coulomb, IIR Director, will make a statement on the two-fold impact the refrigeration sector has on the environment and actions taken by the IIR to assist stakeholders in reducing refrigerant emissions.

This statement will be available for download on our web site Friday, 21 November.

Didier Coulomb has also represented the IIR at a side event co-organized with UNEP and the Italian Ministry of Environment to present “2015 — The Year of Green Cooling” a special international issue of Industria & Formazione. This publication addresses current refrigerant issues, energy efficient solutions, as well as growing refrigeration needs and technological answers.

About the meeting 

The meeting will be opened at 10 a.m. on Monday, 17 November 2014.

The first three days of the meeting, 17 to 19 November 2014, will constitute the preparatory segment of the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Vienna Convention and the Twenty-Sixth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, while the following two days, 20 and 21 November 2014, will constitute the high level segment of both meetings.