UK: London Mayor, Boris Johnson has indicated that the impact of auxiliary engines could be included in future air quality monitoring in London. This will be the first time that harmful emissions from secondary vehicle engines, such as on refrigerated trucks, will be measured and reported by a UK governmental body.
The news was highlighted in a response to a Mayoral question from Stephen Knight AM, which stated that: “officials are considering how best to do this for the following edition of the LAEI [London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory], which is likely to be published in 2017.”
This comes as concern about the impact of harmful impact of emissions is increasing. Recent research from King’s College, London, found that 9,416 premature deaths in London were caused by poor air quality in 2010 – the equivalent of 25 per day.
Auxiliary engines are generally diesel powered and are currently unregulated, meaning they are disproportionately polluting. For example, despite its small size, the engine used to power refrigeration on trucks can emit up to 29 times more potentially carcinogenic particulate matter than a modern Euro6 diesel truck engine.
Discussing the development, Stephen Knight AM said: "Auxiliary engines on delivery vehicles clearly have a serious impact on London’s air quality and it is time the Mayor took firm action to bring these dangerous emissions under control. These transport refrigeration units are a ‘hidden polluter’ and their emissions must now be properly measured and controlled."
Adding to this, Dr Tim Fox, International Ambassador, Dearman, said: "It's a disgrace that 25 people die prematurely every day due to poor air quality in London. As we speak thousands of refrigerated vehicles are delivering food to shops, restaurants and our homes. They may go unnoticed, but every transport refrigeration unit also delivers large amounts of dangerous pollution onto our streets.
“The Mayor’s response shows a small but significant shift in attitude towards these disproportionate polluters. We could make a sizeable impact on both NOx and PM pollution and improve the quality of the air we breathe, by bringing transport refrigeration units up to modern emissions standards – or even better making them zero emission. That small change could have a very big impact.”
Research, conducted by Dearman, has highlighted the disproportionately damaging impact transport refrigeration units could be having. This snappy infographic identifies the Key findings:
Dearman is developing innovative, zero-emission technologies to deliver clean cold and power. The most advanced is a zero-emission transport refrigeration system, which will help to significantly reduce emissions and meet fast growing demand for refrigerated transportation. It will be both cleaner and cheaper to operate, delivering environmental benefit without burdening operators with additional operating costs.
The Dearman transport refrigeration system is currently undergoing on-vehicle trials, will enter commercial trials later this year, and will begin multi-country trials next year.
UK: Clean cold technology company, Dearman, has announced that full testing of its cutting-edge zero-emission engine technology has begun at its new liquid air R&D facility.
The Dearman Technology Centre, located near Croydon, Surrey, is the first dedicated liquid air engine facility of its kind. It houses a range of custom-built test cells, in which Dearman’s ground-breaking technologies will undergo extended durability testing and new applications will be developed.
The Dearman Technology Centre will become a hub of liquid air engine design, engineering, test and development. When fully operational it will enable the testing of four engines simultaneously, along with full system testing, supported by low-volume manufacturing and build capabilities.
Commenting on the new facility, Dearman’s Deputy Chief Executive, Michael Ayres, said: “The Dearman Technology Centre is a huge step forward for the company, and for the development of cutting-edge clean cold technologies. Having a bespoke facility means that we can accelerate our rate of development and testing, enabling us to bring zero- emission cold and power technologies to market even quicker.
“The team is hard at work running durability testing on the Dearman engine powered zero-emission transport refrigeration unit. The technology is performing well – its power output is very good and it is still proving to be highly efficient.”
Regarding other applications of the Dearman engine, he added: “With four test cells and a dedicated workshop, we are able to work on several projects in parallel. We have been at the Dearman Technology Centre for only a few short weeks, but already we are placed to commence work work on the high-efficiency auxiliary power unit for use on buses and heavy-duty vehicles next week.”
Dearman’s zero-emission transport refrigeration system is currently in extended on- vehicle testing at MIRA, and will be commencing commercial on-road trials later this year.
The company has recently been awarded funding from Innovate UK to develop its auxiliary power unit, and work on customising the transport refrigeration system for different vehicle types - activity that will be focused in the new Dearman Technology Centre.
UK: Clean cold technology company Dearman, has been shortlisted as a finalist in this year's RAC Cooling Industry Awards for their transport refrigeration system.
The Dearman zero-emission transport refrigeration system, currently undergoing trials at UK engineering and test centre MIRA, is based on the Dearman engine, which is powered by the expansion of liquid nitrogen to deliver highly efficient and cost-effective power and cooling.
Michael Ayres, Group Managing Director, Dearman said: "Being shortlisted as a 'Refrigeration Innovation' finalist in the respected RAC Cooling Industry Awards is a great achievement for Dearman.
“We are bringing our economically viable, environmental technologies to market in a compressed timescale, and this recognition for Dearman's innovative zero-emission transport refrigeration system is testament to the hard work of everyone in the company"
Currently, most transport refrigeration units are powered by fossil fuels. As these small auxiliary engines are poorly regulated, they are disproportionately polluting, contributing to poor air quality. The Dearman system is zero-emission at the point of use, eliminating NOx (nitrogen oxides), CO2 and particulate matter from the refrigeration process. As well as delivering significant environmental benefit, it is economically viable and presents a strong business case by saving operators money.
Dearman’s zero-emission system is currently undergoing on-vehicle testing and results are encouraging, with the technology performing well. Later this year, the system will be in on-road trials, with extended commercial trials commencing in 2016.
The RAC Cooling Industry Awards champion the leading innovations and environmental successes in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. This announcement follows shortly after Dearman being shortlisted for two categories in the Business Green Leaders Awards, the results of which will be announced next month.
UK: Global technology company Dearman, has today responded to the Supreme Court ruling, which has ordered the government to make clear plans for tackling the UK’s air pollution problem. The ruling follows the UK’s breach of the EU air quality directive, which came into effect in 2010.
Toby Peters, Senior Group Managing Director, Dearman: "This ruling is clearly going to pose challenges for the British Government, but ultimately it must be seen as positive. Air pollution kills thousands of people each year and it's vital that we collectively start to address the challenge. With the right technologies, it is possible to make a significant impact on air quality, without penalising businesses or individuals.
“In particular, this ruling is positive for companies like ours that are developing economically viable zero-emission alternatives to unregulated, polluting auxiliary diesel engines. If the Government grasps this opportunity and puts the right regulations and incentives in place, then we could see a whole new clean technology industry flourish. In time, that industry could establish thousands of new jobs, generate millions of pounds of exports, as well as help clean up the air we breathe."
The Client Earth air quality case ruling could prove hugely exciting for companies like Dearman who present near-market solutions that will enable commercial operators to diversify and cleanup their refrigerated fleets without economic compromise.
Dearman’s zero-emission technology is an alternative to diesel-fuelled transport refrigeration, which is disproportionately polluting and contributes to poor air quality. Replacing 13,000 trailers' diesel refrigeration units with zero-emission systems would prevent 1,800 tonnes of nitrogen oxides from being emitted – equivalent to taking 1.2 million modern diesel cars off the road.
The World Health Organisation found in a report published this week that air pollution costs the European Region US$1.6 trillion per year.
UK: A new report by the global technology company Dearman, estimates that the continuing global rise in urban population as well as demographic changes in developing countries will lead to increased demand for refrigerated transport on our roads and could have devastating effects on the environment unless new technologies are adopted.
The report ‘Cold chains and the demographic dividend’ says that while there were less than three million refrigerated vehicles on the world’s roads in 2013, this number could reach between 15 to 18 million by 2025, and should the trend in conventional diesel-powered transport refrigeration units persist, this increase could see a rise in carbon dioxide emissions of up to 740 million tonnes each year.
The rapid expansion in cold transportation is double previous estimates and is said to reflect the growth of more affluent lifestyles amongst increasingly wealthy, urbanised populations in countries such as India and China.
Discussing the report, Toby Peters, Senior Group Managing Director, Dearman said, “Our report demonstrates that the industry could experience extremely rapid growth and we must be prepared.
"If we aren’t, and if we allow growth to happen using yesterday’s technology rather than tomorrow’s, then the air quality and climate change implications would be very significant and extremely damaging.”
Dearman is therefore calling for more research into the development of alternative systems – such as its own Dearman engine technology which provides high efficiency, zero-emission transport refrigeration units.
Michael Ayres, Group Managing Director, Dearman remarked, "This report clearly indicates that there is a growing global challenge, in terms of the potential environmental effects of a booming transport refrigeration market.
"What is exciting for the industry, however, is that there are near-term solutions that would dramatically lessen the impact of the cold chain, while enabling operators to diversify their growing fleets.
"Dearman technology offers refrigerated truck operators a sustainable and, above all, economically viable solution. The system could provide the operator with payback in just under a year. With the Dearman zero-emission transport refrigeration unit going into commercial field trials later this year, we're excited about its prospects and what that could mean to this rapidly evolving industry."
This report follows recent studies by the IMechE (A Tank of Cold: Cleantech Leapfrog to a More Food Secure World) and the Carbon Trust (The emerging Cold Economy), which also identify the rapidly growing future demand for cooling, along with the opportunity to establish a new industry to provide alternative clean cold technologies.
To find out more about how the Dearman transport refrigeration system works click here
Dearman is a global technology company delivering clean ‘cold and power’.
Dearman’s cutting-edge technology uniquely harnesses liquid air to deliver zero-emission power and cooling. It is developing a portfolio of proprietary technologies, products and services, which deliver significant reductions in operating cost, fuel usage and emissions, at low capital cost.
The first application of Dearman technology, to provide sustainable and efficient zero-emission transport refrigeration, is currently undergoing trials at UK engineering and test centre, MIRA.
The company is building an international reputation for innovation, rigour, commercial acumen and engineering excellence, all to fulfil its primary objective – to make the world a cleaner, cooler place.
UK: Carrier Transicold UK will shine the spotlight on aftersales support at this year’s Commercial Vehicle Show, highlighting a range of new services designed to improve customer efficiency and protect the cold chain.
The CV Show marks Carrier Transicold’s first opportunity to present its new everCOLD™ and oneCALL™ services at a major UK exhibition, following their international launch at the IAA Show in Hanover in September 2014.
Carrier Transicold’s everCOLD flexible maintenance package allows fleets to pay monthly, quarterly or annually with the advantage of fixed costs for the duration of the contract, regardless of how much maintenance is required. In addition to helping to reduce administration time, everCOLD includes all required maintenance and system leak checks carried out by certified engineers in accordance with the newly introduced EU517/2014 F-Gas regulation. Plus, for the first time, it gives customers the flexibility to scale their fleet back by up to 10 per cent each year, to meet demand.
Also new to the show is Carrier Transicold’s 24/7/365 oneCALL incident management service, which gives customers access to more than 600 service centres across 32 countries in Europe and Russia. The new service puts fleets just a single call away from support, with the reassurance of receiving telephone updates throughout the incident, plus the option of SMS, email and online case updates via Carrier’s web tracker service.
“It’s not uncommon for a reefer trailer to carry cargo worth many thousands of pounds – rising to millions with pharmaceuticals,” said John Forster, sales director, Carrier Transicold UK. “Being able to provide outstanding aftersales support is of paramount importance to operators. It’s only natural to put it under the spotlight at this year’s CV Show.”
The 100-square-metre stand will also feature Carrier Transicold’s lightweight Vector™ 1350 unit – the most recent addition to the Vector family of temperature controlled trailer systems. The Vector 1350 unit has been built to maximise payload and reliability while minimising fuel consumption and system downtime, all within a lightweight design that carries 27 per cent less refrigerant than its predecessor, the Maxima.
Completing the stand will be an exclusive “innovation lab”, where visitors can gain insight into the future of refrigerated transport. This will provide an opportunity to look at how Carrier Transicold is working in collaboration with customers to test new energy sources and refrigerants to further sustainability in the cold chain.
About Carrier Transicold
Carrier Transicold helps improve transport and shipping of temperature-controlled cargoes with a complete line of equipment and services for refrigerated transport and cold chain visibility. For more than 40 years, Carrier Transicold has been an industry leader, providing customers around the world with the most advanced, energy-efficient and environmentally sustainable container refrigeration systems and generator sets, direct-drive and diesel truck units, and trailer refrigeration systems. Carrier Transicold is a part of UTC Building & Industrial Systems, a unit of United Technologies Corp., a leading provider to the aerospace and building systems industries worldwide.
EU F-Gas Regulation Guidance Information Sheet 4: Transport Refrigeration
This information sheet is aimed at organisations that are operators (usually the owner) of transport refrigeration equipment, including vans, trucks and trailers. It is also useful for those organisations that manufacture, sell, maintain and dispose of transport refrigeration equipment.
This guidance is for organisations affected by the 2014 EU F-Gas Regulation (517/2014). The F-Gas Regulation creates controls on the use and emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-Gases) including HFCs, PFCs and SF6.
In the transport refrigeration sector, the F-Gas Regulation affects the use of HFCs as refrigerants and as blowing agents for the insulation foam used for vehicle bodies. The 2014 EU F-Gas Regulation replaces the 2006 Regulation, strengthening all of the 2006 requirements and introducing a number of important new measures.
The F-Gas Regulation is an important piece of legislation that will result in significant reductions in the emissions of F-Gases. These are very powerful greenhouse gases, with global warming impacts that are several thousand times higher than CO2 (per kg of gas emitted). All EU Member States agree that it is important to reduce emissions of these gases.
This Information Sheet describes the requirements that apply to transport refrigeration. Further guidance is available – see Information Sheet 30 for a full list and a glossary of terms.
2. Sector description
The transport refrigeration sector is a significant user of HFCs. The majority of transport refrigeration is for road vehicles including vans, trucks and trailers. The refrigerated transport sector also includes shipping containers and specialised systems used for rail freight, ships and aircraft. Note, this sector does not include mobile air-conditioning (MAC) – see Information Sheet 6 for details of MAC systems.
Under the 2006 F-Gas Regulation there were few specific requirements in the transport refrigeration sector. The main requirement was for refrigerant recovery during plant maintenance and at end-of- life. Under the 2014 Regulation the transport sector is treated in a similar way to stationary refrigeration, with various new requirements including mandatory leak checks and use of trained technicians. Some of the new requirements apply to all transport systems, but some are specifically aimed at:
3. Purchase of new equipment
There are no bans on the use of HFCs in new refrigerated transport systems.
NEW: Impact of the HFC Phase Down on the purchase of new equipment
When purchasing new transport refrigeration equipment you should carefully consider the impact of the HFC phase down which is a key feature of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation. The phase down will reduce the quantity of HFCs that can be sold in the EU – by 2030 there will be an 80% cut in HFC supply. Equipment bought now will still be operating when deep cuts in HFC supply are in force. It is important to always purchase equipment using refrigerants with the lowest practical GWP to minimise the future impact of the phase down. HFC 404A is widely used in transport refrigeration systems and it has an especially high GWP. Various alternatives are becoming available for new equipment, as a response to the new F-Gas Regulation.
4. Operation of existing equipment
The 2014 F-Gas Regulation includes a number of requirements that affect the use and maintenance of existing transport refrigeration equipment containing HFC refrigerants. The exact rules depend on the type and size of transport refrigeration equipment being used. The regulations affecting existing equipment relate to (a) leak prevention, (b) record keeping and (c) the use of trained technicians. These requirements are described below.
Leak prevention and mandatory leak checks
NEW: The intentional release of F-Gases into the atmosphere is prohibited. Operators of all transport refrigeration equipment must take all measures that are technically and economically feasible to minimise leakage. Where leaks are detected operators must carry out repairs without undue delay.
NEW: Under the 2006 Regulation, the legal responsibility for preventing F-Gas releases was only given to the operator (usually the owner) of the equipment. In the 2014 Regulation there is a similar legal responsibility given to third party contractors carrying out installation, maintenance, leak checking or refrigerant recovery on behalf of operators.
NEW: Mandatory leak checks are required on refrigerated trucks and trailers above a certain size threshold. The size thresholds are defined in terms of the quantity of refrigerant in each refrigeration unit, measured in tonnes CO2 equivalent.
The use of CO2 equivalent (CO2e) size thresholds means that the kg threshold for each refrigerant is different. Refrigerants with a high GWP (e.g. HFC 404A) will have a lower size threshold than refrigerants with a lower GWP (e.g. HFC 134a). Table 1 shows leak testing requirements. Example thresholds are given for HFC 404A and HFC 134a. A comprehensive table of thresholds is given in Information Sheet 25.
The key size threshold for refrigerated trucks and trailers is 5 tonnes CO2e. Table 1 also shows the thresholds that apply to larger systems. These should not be relevant to trucks and trailers unless they have an unusually large refrigeration system.
Table 1: Size Thresholds for Mandatory Leak Checks of Refrigerated Trucks and Trailers
* The threshold for annual leak checks of hermetically sealed equipment is 10 tonnes CO2e
For refrigerated trucks and trailers with a refrigeration system containing more than 3 kg, the mandatory leak checks apply from 1st January 2015.
For systems with less than 3 kg but more than 5 tonnes CO2e (e.g. an HFC 404A system between 1.3 and 3 kg) the mandatory leak checks apply from 1st January 2017.
It should be noted that vehicles not defined as refrigerated trucks and trailers (e.g. a truck or van that is less than 3.5 tonnes in weight or a refrigerated container) are not subject to mandatory leak checks even if they contain a quantity of refrigerant above the 5 tonnes CO2e threshold. However, there is still the “catch all” requirement described above, to avoid intentional F-Gas release. It is recommended that all refrigerated transport systems are regularly checked for leakage to meet this obligation. This is particularly important for transport systems as they are often subject to harsh conditions such as heavy vibration.
If a leak is found during a mandatory leak check it must be repaired without undue delay and the leak test repeated within one month to ensure the repair was effective.
NEW: Record keeping
Operators of refrigerated trucks and trailers must keep records for each piece of equipment subject
to a mandatory leak check (i.e. above the 5 tonnes CO2e threshold). The records to be kept include:
Records must be kept by the vehicle operator for at least 5 years. Records collected by a contractor on behalf of an operator must be kept by the contractor for at least 5 years
The records shall be made available on request to the UK Government’s competent authority (i.e. the Environment Agency) or to the Commission.
NEW: Service Ban
A new feature of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation is the Service Ban, affecting existing equipment:
In the transport refrigeration sector this could affect systems that use HFC 404A. However, the size threshold of 40 tonnes CO2 is equivalent to 10.2 kg of HFC 404A. Most refrigerated trucks and trailers, vans and containers will be unaffected by the Service Ban as long as they are below this size threshold.
Large transport refrigeration systems (Including all transport types such as rail and ships) that are above the 40 tonnes CO2e threshold (10.2 kg for HFC 404A) must comply with the Service Ban. It will be legal to continue operating such systems, but you will not be allowed to top up any leaks with virgin refrigerant. Owners of equipment affected by the Service Ban have 3 main options:
NEW: Use of trained technicians
All refrigerant handling operations on refrigerated trucks and trailers using refrigeration equipment containing HFC refrigerants must be carried out by suitably trained technicians holding an F-Gas handling certificate and working for an F-Gas Certificated company. This includes plant installation,
leak testing, maintenance and end-of-life decommissioning. See Information Sheet 21 for details of all training and certification requirements.
5. End-of-life requirements
Any transport refrigeration equipment containing HFCs in either the refrigeration circuit or the insulation foam that is being disposed of at end-of-life must undergo an HFC recovery process.
For refrigerated trucks and trailers there is an explicit mandatory requirement for recovery.
For other transport refrigeration there is a “catch-all” requirement for the recovery of F-Gases “to the extent that it is technically feasible and does not entail disproportionate costs”. Under the 2006 Regulation the same catch-all requirement applied to all refrigerated transport. It is considered technically feasible and cost-effective to recover refrigerant from transport systems, so all operators of transport refrigeration equipment should ensure that F-Gases are recovered.
F-Gas refrigerant must be recovered by a certificated technician before the refrigeration system is dismantled. Modern refrigerant recovery machines should be able to remove well over 95% of the refrigerant in an old system. Any insulating foam associated with these refrigeration systems (e.g. PU foam in truck bodies) should be sent to a specialist recovery facility, where the foam can be crushed and the HFCs recovered.
All recovered F-Gases can either be:
Given the HFC supply shortage that will be created by the phase down process, it is worth trying to send the old refrigerant for reclamation as it may have a good residual value. If the old refrigerant is too contaminated it cannot be reclaimed and must be sent for destruction. It is important not to mix different gases in the same recovery cylinder – as this would render them unsuitable for reclamation.
Reclaimed refrigerant can be used in any refrigeration equipment. Recycled refrigerant must always be used with care as it may be contaminated or of unknown composition. The use of recycled refrigerant with a GWP above 2,500 is restricted to either (a) the organisation owning the plant from which the gas was recovered or (b) the organisation that carried out the recovery.
This Information Sheet has been prepared by Gluckman Consulting in collaboration with the Defra (UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) and Jacobs
This document contains the best information available to date and will be updated as more or different information is made available. It does not seek to provide a definitive view on the legal requirements; only the courts can provide such a view. If there are uncertainties you should always refer to the text of the Regulation and seek qualified legal advice.
To find out more about Gluckman Consulting visit www.gluckmanconsulting.com
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UK: Arla Foods, the dairy farmer cooperative has been trialling new technology from transport refrigeration specialist Carrier Transicold, which cuts carbon emissions by using power from the refrigeration unit to collect raw milk into the combination trailer.
Carrier was able to develop new wiring configurations and software to allow the tri-axle combination trailer, which is a half refrigerated body, half milk-collection tanker, to power the milk-collection pump motors. Thus eliminating the need for a tractor unit equipped with a power take-off (PTO) and the associated hydraulics. It also reduces its total weight by 250kg.
Using this new technology the pumps are now powered by the Vector unit's 1.5-litre engine – which also uses cheaper red diesel also known as farm diesel.
Arla is looking to switch to this new technology to help support its goal to cut its overall CO2 output by 34% by 2020, with logistics delivering a third of the reduction.
Peter Bradbury, general manager national fleet, Arla Foods UK said “We saw an opportunity to make the combination trailers even more efficient, using electricity generated by the Vector™ refrigeration unit to power the motors when loading and discharging raw milk.”
ARLA FOODS: ARLA is owned by British Dairy Farmers and is responsible for Brands such as: Anchor, Lurpak, Apetina and Lactofree.
UK: Carrier Transicold and Sainsbury’s have won the 2014 Motor Transport Award for Innovation.
The award was presented at London’s prestigious Grosvenor House on July 2nd for the implementation of Carrier Transicold’s NaturalLINE eco-friendly refrigeration system into Sainsbury’s temperature controlled fleet as part of the company’s ambitious 20x20 sustainability plan, to reduce its operational carbon emissions by 30% absolute and 65% relative by 2020, compared with 2005.
The new system is called the ‘world’s first naturally refrigerated trailer’ for food transportation, which uses carbon dioxide to transport frozen and chilled foods in a cool environment. The supermarket chain says the new trailers could save more than 70,000 tonnes of CO2 in comparison to its current HFC-refrigerated fleet.
The eco-friendly refrigeration system has been operating from Sainsbury’s Elstree depot delivering frozen goods to London stores since the trial began in August 2013. For the trial, a modified version of the NaturalLINE unit has been mounted to a specially commissioned 10.8m Gray & Adams urban distribution trailer.
The judges said the system was a “potential game changer”.
About Carrier Transicold: Carrier Transicold is a global force in transport refrigeration and a part of UTC Climate, Controls & Security, a unit of United Technologies Corp. (NYSE: UTX). Carrier Transicold offers a complete range of products, aftermarket parts, and services for container refrigeration, truck, trailer and rail refrigeration.
UK: Hubbard Products have teamed up with the Dearman Engine Company to commence field trails of a liquid air transport refrigeration system, bringing the technology a step closer to becoming commercially available for transport operators.
Pat Maughan, managing director, Hubbard Products said: “Much of transport refrigeration is working in residential and urban areas; and this is only going to become a larger part of the market."
“We have reviewed the Dearman technology and concluded it has enormous potential to revolutionise both the emissions and costs inherent in refrigerated road transport. We are delighted to be in on the ground floor and look forward to exploiting this new and entirely British-developed technology.”
The two companies have signed an agreement to advance the technical, commercial and industrial development of the Dearman transport refrigeration system to a stage where Hubbard can manufacture, integrate and market the new technology.
Dearman is said to have already engaged in discussions with two major supermarkets with the objective to collaborate to deliver approximately five field trial prototypes of the refrigerated vehicle system to an end user in the UK, as early next year.
Hubbard’s membership of the Zanotti Group gives Dearman the potential for a global refrigeration system partner.
The Dearman engine will begin field trials in summer 2014, a project led by MIRA with funding from the Technology Strategy Board. The expansion caused by heating the liquid nitrogen to boiling point drives the pistons to create shaft power, and releases only clean, cold air as exhaust. The Dearman engine is constructed almost entirely from the components of a conventional piston engine, requires little maintenance and has a light environmental impact.
A consortium led by the Dearman Engine Company was awarded close to £2 million earlier this year in the latest round of IDP10 funding from the Technology Strategy Board, in order to support the development of a heat-recovery system for buses and other urban commercial vehicles. It offers potential fuel savings of up to 50% and life-cycle CO2 savings of up to 40%.
About Hubbard Products
Part of the worldwide Zanotti group, Hubbard Products Ltd. is the UK’s principal designer, manufacturer and supplier of refrigeration, including commercial refrigeration, industrial refrigeration, refrigeration equipment, refrigeration systems, refrigeration units, including condensers and transport refrigeration.
Hubbard Products has an enviable global reputation for innovation and excellence in refrigeration design, refrigeration engineering and refrigeration solutions for static and transport refrigeration requirements.